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The recent pattern of milder than usual winters and cool spring temperatures combined with wet conditions in the northeast have favored development of a fungal disease known as "needle cast". Young trees sustain the most severe damage, but trees of any size can be affected. This fungus infects the young growing needles of Colorado blue spruce, white spruce and Norway spruce. The fungus Rhizosphaera kalkhoffii causes needle cast of spruce. (800) 262-3804, Iowa State University | PoliciesState & National Extension Partners, Like us at Plant and Insect Diagnostic Clinic, Like us at Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Contact information for each states diagnostic laboratory for U.S. residents. The Iowa State University Plant & Insect Diagnostic Clinic can help you to investigate and confirm if your plant has this disease. Rhizosphaera needle cast is caused by the fungus Rhizosphaera kalkhoffii. In both cases, sprays must occur yearly. Rhizosphaera needle cast is caused by fungal pathogens within the genus Rhizosphaera. This genus also infects several conifer species including; fir, cedar, spruce, and pine Signs and symptoms of Rhizosphaera needle cast Rhizosphaera needle cast is a fungal disease of spruce trees that causes needles to turn brown and fall off. Contact information for each states diagnostic laboratory for U.S. residents. Rhizosphaera needle cast disease is caused by the fungus Rhizosphaera kalkhoffii Bubak. Another common spruce tree disease is rhizosphaera needle cast. The best evidence for needle cast are tiny black dots arranged in rows on infected needles. In areas where stigmina needle cast is prevalent, the most effective management tactic is tree selection. Stigmina needle cast is often mistaken for Rhizosphaera needle cast. Rhizosphaera needle cast is most severe on Colorado blue spruce, with Norway spruce being resistant. White spruce is moderately resistant and Norway mostly resistant. Early in the spring following initial infection, new spores are produced. Both diseases occur because of fungus growth on the trees, but each has different symptoms. For rhizosphaera needle cast disease to take hold, needles … Spruce trees can show brown needles starting from the lower limbs and progressing up the tree. 2150 Beardshear Hall Spruce and coniferous trees are susceptible to environmental, insect and disease problems that can cause the trees to discolor, lose needles and possibly die. It mostly occurs on spruces that are not being grown in their native habitat. Rhizosphaera needle cast is the most common disease on spruce trees that is received in the Plant and Insect Diagnostic Clinic. Again, if you apply fungicides for needle cast disease, we ask you to make one of those applications one month after your first application. In this case, there are two options: (1) spray only during the first two months after bud-break to save only the youngest, most visible needles for aesthetic purposes, or (2) spray season-long to prevent infections entirely until the diseased needles fall off. White specks of wax from stomatal pits may be visible on top of the sporodochia at this stage. The most abundant spread of spores and infection within the canopy occurs in the first two months after budbreak, but spore production and infection can occur as long as temperatures are above 50 °F. Use of fungicides is possible, but may only be sensible for larger-scale growers such as nurseries and Christmas tree farms. Rhizosphaera needle cast damage in spruce. Stigmina needle blight: Year-old needles turn yellow, brown and then fall in the Spring a year after infection. If your sample is from outside of Iowa please do not submit it to the Plant & Insect Diagnostic Clinic without contacting us. Needles with signs (evidence) of the pathogen, Type of sample needed for diagnosis and confirmation. Norway spruce is susceptible to a variety of diseases, but the two main ones are cytospora canker disease and Rhizosphaera needle cast. Please see our website for current forms, fees, and instructions on collecting and packing samples. Spruce Needle Cast Confusion; April 21, 2004: There is only one major needle cast disease to deal with in Illinois, Rhizosphaera needle cast. Trees stressed from drought, poor planting practices or other factors are more likely to suffer from Rhizosphaera needle cast. Fruiting Bodies (sporodochia)- signs of the fungal pathogen. In the following growing season, sporodochia produce more spores and continue the disease cycle. No fungicides are currently labeled in the United States specifically for stigmina needle cast, however, fungicides labeled for needle diseases of spruce trees may be used in the state where they are registered. Spruce in both urban and rural landscapes can be affected. Field identification is based on symptoms, but accurate identification requires laboratory analysis.Healthy spruce trees will retain 5 or more years of needles. May 18, 2020. Norway, black, blue, and white spruce … Colorado and Engelmann spruce are very susceptible, but Norway and white spruce are somewhat resistant. By late summer approximately one year after initial infection, entire needles or parts of infected needles appear darker and range from yellow to tan to brown or purple in coloration. Immature sporodochia, which are fungal fruiting bodies, develop on needles by late spring and overwinter. Avoid planting susceptible spruce trees. Trees can be protected from Rhizosphaera needle cast with properly timed fungicide applications. Norway, black, blue, and white spruce are hosts to this pathogen. Now is a critical time to inspect spruce trees for Rhizosphaera needle cast, a common disease of spruce trees in Minnesota. 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